As editor

conceptual editing

Partnering with the subject matter expert or writer to develop the concept of a piece, based on the business goals and audience. Determining scope, approach, content, delivery method. Developing the initial structure, organization, and writing style, including voice and tone. Sketching out a plan for development. Sometimes also considered part of developmental editing.

Can overlap, in part, the substance of a book proposal, doc plan, marketing plan.

Developmental editing

Addressing the framework of the piece: structure, organization, overall approach, writing style. Assessing coherence, clarity, effectiveness. Suggestions for restructuring and revising.

At its deeper levels, shades into the domain of a conceptual edit.

line editing

Reading for organization, logic, and coherence at the section and paragraph level, and for cohesion, flow, and emphasis at the paragraph and sentence level. Assessing effectiveness. Suggestions for revising text.

At its deeper levels, shades into the domain of a developmental edit.

Medium to light copyediting

Reading for clarity and concision at the sentence level, and for consistency of treatment throughout. Suggestions for revising text. Correcting spelling, grammar, punctuation, and usage.

Although I can work at this level, and do incorporate these checks as appropriate in my other work, this is not my home base. I typically work more deeply with the material.

As writer


Restructuring and revising the piece to be clearer, more coherent, more effective — or more of whatever quality is wanted. Working as the current author or alongside another as silent collaborator.


Restructuring and revising, or writing from scratch, in another’s voice.


Developing original content, in registers spanning the academic or literary on one end and web-casual on the other. Direct and engaging. No old-school business writing.